Voting machines. Our democracy depends upon them to precisely document each poll. You go to the polls, you solid your vote, your voice is heard. Proper? Not so quick. “Russian assaults.” “Russian hackers.” “Russian hackers tried to interrupt into U.S. election methods.” As a result of in 2016 — “The Russians managed to get us paranoid in regards to the safety of our personal election methods.” However this 12 months, specialists are extra assured that — “I feel it’s secure to say that is essentially the most safe election we’ve ever held in america.” In 2016, Russians infiltrated our voting methods in each single state. “This was probably the most profitable intelligence operations in fashionable historical past.” Now, there’s no proof Russians altered votes, however — “It’s as if a cat burglar obtained into your own home, cased the joint, however didn’t take something.” And it raised the query — “Might the Russians really have an effect on the vote?” However due to a number of the machines we have been utilizing, we didn’t know for positive. So in 2020, if there’s one other cyberattack, People need to know that their vote was counted as they solid it. Like, say, with a — “Voter-verified paper path.” Sure, like that. A paper path. Seems a number of folks tried to make this occur years in the past, however — “It’s a tough world on the market within the elections voting system enterprise.” To see why it took Russia’s hacking to enhance our voting know-how, we go to Texas. The Structure offers states energy to run their very own elections, and most states give counties the facility to decide on their very own voting machines. And nowhere is that this extra obvious than in — “Texas.” “Texas.” “Texas —” [mooing] “— is a microcosm of all of the totally different voting applied sciences used in every single place within the U.S. Each totally different Texas county, totally different voting system, totally different procedures.” Dan Wallach is a pc scientist at Rice College in Houston, and he had really been warning in regards to the vulnerabilities of our voting system lengthy earlier than 2016. “I’m fearful about evil software program within the machines flipping your vote in a means that you just, the voter, can’t inform that the machine was evil.” He was most involved about direct recording digital voting machines, or DREs. “The one document of your vote is contained in the reminiscence of that machine. And that implies that if one thing tampers with that digital reminiscence, you don’t have any means to return.” And but within the final presidential election, 28 p.c of registered voters used these machines. So how did some People get caught with these susceptible voting machines? Properly, to seek out out, we have to go all the way in which again to 2000. The aught. Florida. It was Al Gore versus George Bush for president. “Oh my goodness. 2000. That was the election that all of us thought would by no means finish. “The presidential race is crackling like a hickory fireplace right here. Couldn’t be a lot nearer.” A contested vote, a recount and all of it got here all the way down to the chads. These pesky fragments of paper leftover when a gap is punched in a card. Not all these chads have been fully punched by way of, although. “There was a dangling chad.” “It’s barely indifferent.” “Pregnant chad.” “Dimpled chad.” “Opening and shutting chad.” Throughout the recount, ballot staff have been left to find out voter intent, and all eyes have been on the chads. “By that point, all of us knew what a nasty system punch-card voting was.” “Within the wake of the hanging chad points, Congress handed the Assist America Vote Act in 2002. The Assist America Vote Act allotted billions of to assist states change antiquated voting machines.” And the states went procuring. Some purchased hand-marked paper ballots and optical scanners. And others purchased the machines that had fearful Dan essentially the most. The very fashionable, paperless DREs. “If it have been as much as me at the moment, and if I have been promoting voting know-how, I might not promote a paperless DRE system in good conscience. I don’t assume that it’s a accountable factor to do.” That is Eddie Perez. He used to promote these machines, however left the business to advocate for safer voting methods with a paper path. “I might characterize the extent of federal regulation for voting know-how as comparatively skinny. There are quite a lot of merchandise which can be really extra extremely regulated than voting know-how. Even issues as mundane as ballpoint pens. Components fail, methods get outdated, screens cease performing the way in which they’re presupposed to. So a voter would possibly contact one portion of the display screen to mark one candidate and the system interprets it as a alternative for another person.” “It’s not letting me vote for who I need to vote for.” “There’s loads of voting gear that’s nonetheless on the market whose design dates, most likely, all the way in which again to 20 years in the past.” However with most of their federal cash spent, many Texas counties have been caught. “We stored our digital voting system for 18 years.” As Travis County Clerk, Dana DeBeauvoir is liable for selecting the machines for voters in Austin. “The factor that was most vital to our voters was to have a paper path. However not one of the voting system producers would construct a system with a paper path. And it was irritating.” And so she determined to construct one herself. “I used to be watching a video of a professor out of Rice College rake me over the coals.” “Such blatant safety flaws. I imply, simply actually unhealthy engineering.” “As an alternative of simply getting mad, I went to that individual.” “My cellphone rings and it’s Dana, and she or he says, ‘I need your assist.’” “And I stated to him, ‘Let’s you and I design a voting system collectively.’” “I’m like, severely? All proper. Can I invite my associates? We hacked up an inkjet printer and a bunch of different low-cost hardware mashed right into a customized metal field that we constructed, and we got here up with a very nice design.” They referred to as it S.T.A.R. Vote. “Laptop scientists like to make acronyms out of phrases. First we provide you with the acronym, then we attempt to discover the phrases that match.” “Safe.” “Clear.” “Auditable.” “Dependable.” “A mix of each digital and paper voting paper voting strategies.” “S.T.A.R. Vote.” A brand new digital voting machine with paper backup ballots that assist with verification and audit. An open-source system which makes it safer and cheaper for taxpayers. The top product, a more moderen, safer voting machine. “What we have been really doing was a start-up enterprise. And I don’t assume we actually realized that on the outset.” Designing a machine is one factor. Discovering somebody to fabricate it’s one other. “The voting system business is a pair hundred million a 12 months. That’s a teeny tiny market.” “It’s troublesome to get within the market, and so they don’t welcome anyone else coming in.” In a small market, there’s not a lot room for competitors. Simply three corporations dominate the voting machine business. “These three main distributors are those which have carved out their house and made their dedication to it. And they also really wield quite a lot of energy in that business.” “That market doesn’t go away an entire lot of room for corporations to do revolutionary design and improvement.” “Voting know-how is solely very, very gradual to alter.” “Present digital voting machines have little or no safety in-built. Please assist me and different elections directors who need to do a greater job. What we’re designing is an digital voting system. We’re prepared to begin constructing S.T.A.R. Vote.” In 2016, Dana DeBeauvoir had reached the ultimate phases of the S.T.A.R. Vote design when reviews that … “The intelligence companies of a international energy intervened on a scale by no means seen earlier than.” … shook America’s confidence in its voting system. It appeared like the right second for brand new gamers like S.T.A.R. Vote, who’d spent years fascinated by the way to get voters to belief their election outcomes. “Since we had completed all of the design work for them, we thought one of many common producers would decide this up. Travis County put it out to bid. Many of the massive producers submitted bids. Nevertheless, they submitted bids that have been extra alongside the strains of, purchase what we have already got.” She says the distributors rejected a key safety element of S.T.A.R. Vote. “Open-source software program.” Good for transparency, however having free supply code means corporations can’t cost as a lot. “Open-source methods — a minimum of the way in which this one was designed, and typically — are low-revenue software program tasks.” All of them handed. With the 2020 election across the nook, Dana nonetheless had all these getting older DREs, so she was — “Operating out of time. At that time, we realized that we had reached the tip of our potentialities with S.T.A.R. Vote. It was most likely the bottom time in my complete profession. We had the key recipe for pulling all people collectively, and we nonetheless hadn’t made it occur.” However larger adjustments have been occurring nationally. After 2016, voting methods have been declared a part of the nation’s crucial infrastructure — like dams and energy vegetation. This meant new federal scrutiny of how People solid their vote for the primary time since 2000. “And the voting machine producers started to get the message.” “Sure.” “They started to maneuver in the direction of methods that had paper backup as a result of they acknowledged that the political strain was large.” In 2018, Congress gave the states extra money to fortify their methods and required a paper path for all newly bought voting machines. “Six months after we obtained the unhealthy information that nobody was going to construct S.T.A.R. Vote for us, we obtained a dramatic turnaround within the business for voting methods. They’d actually constructed a brand new voting system with digital assist and a paper path. My thrill was a bit bit tempered by the frustration of figuring out that they might have completed it years earlier than.” And so Travis County joins battleground states like Pennsylvania and Georgia, and went procuring. Once more. “Some huge cash.” And paper is the explanation specialists are saying 2020 would be the most safe election we’ve ever held. It’s not simply in regards to the voting machines. A larger variety of e-poll books — that are used to check-in voters on Election Day — will even have a paper backup system. “And that’s why the Division of Homeland Safety has spent a 12 months attempting to get cities and cities throughout America to print out these e-poll books to guarantee that they’d a number of backups of their registration methods.” A course of moved additional alongside by the pandemic. “You already know in an odd means, the coronavirus disaster has helped us some in our election crises.” It’s pushed many states to shift to mail-in voting, which gives an automated paper backup. In 2020, due to states shopping for new voting methods and the rise in vote-by-mail, an estimated 95 p.c of voters will use auditable paper ballots. That’s to not say the shift to paper has been problem-free. Some states purchased machines that produce a barcode for a paper poll, which makes it more durable for voters to confirm. “The paper that comes out of the machine — machine-marked paper — has a barcode on it that’s the official vote. No human can learn a barcode.” And in numerous states, there have been printing errors on mail-in ballots. “There’s a distinct identify on the poll that you just’re presupposed to ship in.” Nonetheless, with regards to hacking and widespread fraud, specialists agree that paper — by way of mail-in voting or with a voter verified paper path — is as secure because it will get. “Having a paper poll mailed to an increasing number of People means there’s a traceable means for folks to vote. And a means for election displays to audit afterward that these votes have been counted the way in which they have been solid. And that they have been solid by folks eligible to vote.” The nation’s voting system is safer than it was 4 years in the past, however some counties didn’t make the transition and could possibly be extra susceptible. “The one states with vital quantities of non-paper digital ballots are states like, actually, Texas.” Texas, a possible swing state for 2020, lags behind the remainder of the nation in election safety. Harris County, the third largest county within the nation, wasn’t in a position to buy new machines and nonetheless has their DREs from 2006. And with the Texas Supreme Courtroom refusing to increase absentee voting and by permitting just one drop field per county, it places additional strain on the machines to operate easily on Election Day. “A notion hack is a hack that’s simply sufficiently big to create the phantasm of a broad cyberattack. As a result of if they’ll manipulate some votes, registration methods, e-poll books, in only a few locations, folks will assume that they did so in every single place. That’s the fantastic thing about a notion hack. And 4 years later, The psychological import of what the Russians did could also be larger than something that they really hacked into, as a result of they’ve managed to shake the boldness of American voters that their votes can be counted as they solid them.” That is Alex. And I’m Kassie. We produced this episode of “Harassed Election.” There’s rather a lot happening this election, and we need to be sure we take a deep dive into the foremost points. Stick round for the subsequent episodes. We’re going to cowl voting rights, voting know-how, disinformation and vote-by-mail.